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  • Golf Fact Sheet

    Facts on golf injuries


    Golf is a popular casual and competitive activity that is played by people of all abilities and ages. Statistics from the Australian Sports Commission’s 2006 survey showed an estimated 1,132,000 Australians aged 15 years and older played golf in the 12 months prior to being surveyed. Regular golf can offer a range of health benefits – improving stamina, cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance. While the risk of injury during golf is low compared to other sports, injuries can and do occur.


     How many injuries?

    • In 2006, 83 people were admitted to Victorian hospitals while 175 people visited emergency departments for golf-related injuries.
    • During this period, the hospitalisation rate was highest among those aged between 65 and 69 years while the emergency department rate ranked highest between 5 to 9 year olds.The causes and types of injuries
    •  Long periods of intensive play can lead to muscle imbalances in high level players.
    • Those more likely to be injured are males aged between 24 and 65 years that participate for an average of six hours per week in social competitions, professional golfers involved in high intensity play and children under 10 years of age.
    • Common causes of injuries are overuse, poor swing style, twisting the body too much, hitting the ground or objects other than the ball, hits from a club or ball, falls and aggravation of a previous injury.
    • The most common types of injuries are fractures, open wounds and sprains and strains.
    • Injuries to the knee/lower leg, head and face are most common.
    • Overuse injuries typically occur to the lower back, wrist/elbow, knee and shoulder. These injuries are not always severe but can limit performance.
    • Injuries to children, especially under 10 years of age, are often severe and usually to the head and face. Common causes of these injuries are unsupervised play and standing too close to a player swinging a golf club.

    Safety tips for golf

    • Good preparation is important.  Avoid playing with a pre-existing illness or injury. If in doubt, talk to your doctor.
    • Always warm up, stretch and cool down. A warm up should include gentle movement and mobility exercises, leg and shoulder stretches, followed by gentle air swings or ball hits using short irons.
    • Undertake strength and fitness programs including weight training and/or aerobic activities, e.g. walking or jogging.
    • Gradually increase the intensity and duration of your practice sessions as this will help reduce the risk of injury.
    • Good technique and practices will help prevent injury
    • Know the rules and play fairly.
    • Seek instruction from a registered Professional Golf Association coach to develop correct swing technique, for both injury prevention and performance.
    • Stand at least four club lengths away when others swing golf clubs.
    • Check that no one else is standing close by before you swing.
    • Do not play until the group in front has cleared. Shout ‘fore’ to warn of danger to players and spectators. Give way to ground staff and wait until they call you to play on.

    Use appropriate equipment and make the environment safe

    Lift and carry clubs safely, preferably with the help of a buggy.

    • Do not enter areas which snakes, dangerous insects or animals might inhabit. Do not place hands in areas/holes that you cannot check for snakes
    • or spiders.
    • When using motorised carts, check the local safety rules regarding pathways and feet placement.
    • Ensure playing fields and facilities are well maintained and free of hazards.
    • Store golfing equipment in a secure place away from the reach of children when it is not in use.
    • Wear the right protective equipment
    • Seek professional advice when purchasing golf equipment (clubs and shoes).
    • Modify rules and equipment for children
    • A responsible adult should supervise children at all times when golf equipment is being used.
    • Children should be taught to stand clear of swinging clubs at all times.
    • Encourage children to take part in junior golf clinics to develop good skills and techniques.

    Other safety tips

    • Drink water before, during and after play.
    • Play within your limits.
    • Be sunsmart. Wear sun protective clothing, sunglasses, SPF 30+ sunscreen and a hat.
    • Carry sunscreen, insect repellent and/or relief cream in your golf bag at all times.
    • Adhere to the local safety rules of the golf course.
    • Move off the golf course when lightning strikes are possible.
    • Do NOT play in extreme weather conditions.
    • If the temperature exceeds 35 degrees Celsius, players and competition managers should reconsider further play.
    • Qualified first aid personnel, first aid kits, ice packs and a stretcher should be available at all times.
    • Golfers should carry a mobile phone in case of emergency (however turn it off during play).

    If an injury occurs

    • Stop playing if you experience an injury or illness.
    • Injured players should seek prompt attention from qualified first aid personnel or a sports medicine professional.
    • Players should be fully rehabilitated before returning to play.



    Source : Click Here !


  • Baseball Fact Sheet

    Facts on Baseball Injuries

    How many baseballers?

    • In 1993 there were 143,100 players formally registered with the Australian Baseball Federation.

    How many injuries?

    • Baseball injuries rank 13th (for children) and 16th (for adults) in terms of sport and recreation injury presentations to Australian hospital emergency departments.

    Who is injured?

    • Although baseballers of all ages and levels of experience are injured, males aged 10 to 24 years are the most commonly injured group of baseballers in Australia.
    • Of those injuries to baseballers, 47% child and 88% of adult cases occurred during formal play.

    When do injuries occur?

    • Available evidence suggests that injuries are more likely to occur at the start of the baseball season.

    The cause and type of injuries

    • The most common cause of injury for baseballers is being hit by the ball. Also common are injuries associated with sliding to base (more common in adults), over-exertion, falls, collision with another player, misjudged catches resulting in a finger injuries and being hit by the baseball bat (more common in children).
    • Impacts with standard stationary bases while sliding incorrectly to base can cause serious hand and feet injuries.
    • Injuries to child baseballers are mostly to the head/face, including bruising, lacerations and concussion. Finger injuries, particularly strains/sprains, are also common.
    • Injuries to adult baseballers are mostly strains/sprains to the ankle or knee and fractures to the nose or tibia/fibula.

    Safety tips for baseball

    Good preparation is important

    • Undertake pre-season stretching/strengthening programs to assist in the prevention of overuse injuries associated with pitching.
    • Undertake a good stretching program and proper warm up for limbs before and after play and a comprehensive conditioning program to develop flexibility, endurance and strength.

    Good technique and practices will help prevent overuse injury

    • Coaches should conduct pre-season stretching/strengthening programs; evaluate and correct pitching techniques; and limit the number of pitches thrown by an individual player.
    • Coaches should limit the number of pitches per week for each player, make rest periods between pitching mandatory and teach proper pitching techniques.

    Wear appropriate safety equipment

    • Wear good quality, double eared helmets with face protectors which will protect the face from the tip of the nose to below the chin, including the teeth and facial bones.
    • Wear energy absorbing chest padding when batting, pitching or catching to distribute any blows from a baseball impact over a broad area of the chest.
    • Always wear shin protection, breast plate and a helmet with a mask when playing in the catchers position.
    • Children players should wear properly fitted genital protectors at all times in the field.

    Modify playing environments to improve safety

    • Use breakaway/quick release bases instead of standard stationary bases to reduce the load impact generated should a player impact with the base. Standard bases are not designed to absorb the force of a sliding player and can cause serious injuries to the hands and feet upon impact.
    • An American study has estimated that the use of break-away bases could represent a 80% reduction in the risk of injury involved with sliding.
    • Pad fences, walls and posts to help prevent injury if players run in to them when attempting to catch the ball.

    Modify rules for children

    • Encourage children to play TeeBall as a means of developing good technique.

    Other safety tips

    • Use protective screening to protect players in dugouts and on benches.
    • Ensure playing fields and facilities are well maintained.
    • Players should be instructed to slide in the correct manner.
    • Safety screens should be used during practice, particularly for batting practice.

    If an injury occurs

    • Ensure all injured baseballers receive adequate treatment and full rehabilitation before resuming play.


    Source : Click Here !



  • Surfing Fact Sheet

    Surfing is a very popular sport with an estimated 18 million surfers globally. Today the sport attracts a wide range of participants covering all age groups. Surfboard development and the resurgence of longboards or Malibus has made the sport more accessible to a broader range of surfers.

    Common surfing injuries

    Recent research suggests that lacerations account for almost half of all surfing injuries. Sprains account for over a quarter of all injuries followed by dislocations and fractures. Health problems such as swimmer’s ear and surfer’s ear are also common.

    Facts about surfing injuries

    Surfing is regarded as a safe sport. Compared to some other sports the overall risk of injury is low (2.2 injuries per 1,000 surfing days or 0.26 injuries per surfer per year) and the large majority of injuries are not serious.

    Body parts most frequently injured

    Surfers most often sustain injuries to the leg (46%). Head and facial injuries are also common (26%), followed by injuries to the trunk/back (13%) and the shoulder and arm (13%).

    Cause of injury

    The main cause of injury is contact with a surfer’s own board or that of another surfer (45%). ‘Wiping out’ accounts for 36% of all injuries and striking the seabed accounts for 18% of injuries.

    Preventing Surfing Injuries

    • Effective injury prevention involves a host of measures including good preparation, good technique, appropriate practices, correct equipment and appropriate injury management.
    • Good preparation is important.
    • Surfers should undertake a warm-up prior to activity.  This may include a general body warm up followed by suitable stretches.
    • Sunscreen (30+) should be worn at all times.
    • New or novice surfers should participate in a Surfing Victoria accredited surf school to learn appropriate skills, technique and water safety.

    Appropriate practices

    Surfing etiquette should be practised by all surfers to avoid collisions in the surf. Good surf etiquette includes:

    • Inexperienced surfers should not surf alone
    • A responsible adult should supervise children at all times when surfing.
    • Surfers should check weather and beach conditions before entering the water, to ensure safety.
    • Respecting the rights of other surfers in the water.
    • Allowing everyone to catch their share of waves.
    • One surfer on a wave, as waves do not allow room for more than one and collisions, injury and conflict between surfers can occur.
    • Adequate water should be consumed before, during and after activity to avoid dehydration.

    Use correct equipment

    • Professional advice should be sought when purchasing a surfboard.
    • If you have a previous injury consult a sports medicine professional to ensure you are fit to surf.
    • Wherever possible surfers should have a mobile phone close by in case of emergency.
    • Consideration should be given to purchasing a board with flexible fins and a blunt nose or protective nose guard.
    • Surfers should wear wetsuits for buoyancy, sun protection and to prevent seabed abrasions.
    • Surfers should wear leg ropes, especially in large surf.
    • Existing surfboards should be fitted with nose guards to minimise injury risk.

    If an injury occurs

    • Surfers should stop immediately if an injury  occurs and seek prompt treatment.


    Source : Click Here !


  • Tennis Fact Sheet

    Facts on tennis injuries

    Tennis is a popular international sport catering to all ages and skill levels. Statistics from the Australian Sports Commission’s 2006 survey showed an estimated 1,130,700 Australians aged 15 years and older played tennis in the 12 months prior to being surveyed. Tennis is a sport that can be played on a variety of surfaces (grass, artificial grass, hard court surfaces such as plexicushion and plexipave and clay/en- tout-cas), which requires speed, power, endurance, balance and coordination. As a result, injuries can and do occur.

    How many injuries?

    • The rate of tennis injury in the general population is five injuries per 1,000 hours of participation.
    • From 2002-2003, 505 people were admitted to hospitals across Australia for tennis-related injuries, at a rate of 33 injuries per 100,000 tennis players.
    • In 2006, 127 people were admitted to Victorian hospitals while 382 people visited Victorian emergency departments for tennis-related injuries.

    The causes and types of injuries

    • Lower limb (ankle, knee, and thigh) injuries are most common and are caused by the sprinting, stopping, pivoting and pounding nature of tennis. Lower limb tennis injuries are acute (e.g. ankle sprain) or chronic (e.g. knee tendon pain).
    • Upper limb (elbow, shoulder, wrist) injuries are usually caused by the high-velocity and repetitive arm movements required in tennis. These injuries tend to be overuse in nature (e.g. tennis elbow).
    • Back injuries and pain are common due to the rotation required to hit groundstrokes, and the combination of rotation, extension and lateral flexion involved in the serve.

    Factors affecting your injury risk

    • Different court surfaces.
    • Condition of tennis balls used.
    • Type of racquet.
    • Playing technique.
    • Weather extremes.
    • Inappropriate footwear.
    • Poor physical conditioning.
    • The amount and level of participation.
    • Poor injury rehabilitation.

    Safety tips for tennis

    • Good preparation is important
    • Avoid playing with a pre-existing illness or injury. If in doubt, talk to a medical practitioner.
    • Always warm up, stretch and cool down.
    • Maintain an adequate fitness level. Undertake conditioning and training exercises specific to the physical demands of tennis.

    Good technique and practices will help prevent injury

    • Seek instruction from a Tennis Australia qualified coach to develop correct skills and techniques.
    • Avoid over-repetition of any one type of shot. Practise a range of strokes including groundstrokes, serves, return of serves, overhead smashes and volleys.

    Use appropriate equipment and make the environment safe

    • Use a racquet suitable for your style of play and physical capabilities. Players, especially those with arm and shoulder injuries, should seek professional advice when selecting a racquet and choosing string tension.
    • Use tennis balls appropriate for the playing surface. Avoid using wet or flat/dead balls.
    • Check and maintain the playing surface to ensure it is in good condition and free of hazards.
    • Wear the right protective equipment
    • Seek professional advice on footwear.
    • Players with a history of joint injury should seek professional advice about taping or bracing before play.

    Modify rules and equipment for children

    • Encourage children and beginners to participate in grassroots tennis programs such as Aviva Tennis Hot Shots or similar beginner programs delivered by local clubs and coaches, to introduce new players to the game through modified equipment such as mini-nets and decompression balls. This will help new players develop good tennis skills and correct technique.
    • Children should use equipment suitable to their age, size and skill level.

    Other safety tips


    • Be sunsmart. Wear sun protective clothing, a hat, sunglasses and SPF 30+ sunscreen.
    • In hot conditions, seek shade before, during and after play, and avoid playing in the middle of the day, if possible, when UV rays are most intense.
    • Eat a well-balanced diet.
    • Drink water before, during and after play.
    • Exercise caution when playing in extreme heat/humidity or wet/cold conditions.

    If an injury occurs


    • Stop playing if you experience an injury or illness.
    • Injured players should seek prompt attention from qualified first aid personnel or a sports medicine professional.
    • Injuries should be fully rehabilitated before returning to play.


    Source : Click Here !


  • Basketball Fact Sheet

    Facts on basketball injuries

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in Australia with players of all ages and skill levels participating.

    Statistics from the Australian Sports Commission’s 2006 survey showed an estimated 541,600 Australians aged 15 years and older played basketball in the 12-month period prior to being surveyed.

    Basketball is a dynamic game of speed with frequent and aggressive body contacts that can result in injury.

    How many injuries?

    • From 2002-2003, 1,244 people were admitted to hospitals across Australia for basketball-related injuries.
    • In Victoria, from 2002-2004, 3,426 people visited Victorian emergency departments for basketball-related injuries.
    • From 2002-2003, one in every 449 basketballers was admitted to a hospital across Australia.
    • The rate of injury for basketballers is 14 injuries per 1,000 hours played.

    The causes and types of injuries

    • Common causes of injuries are falls, player contact, awkward landings, abrupt changes in direction and being hit by the ball.
    • Injuries to the lower body, namely ankle sprains, are most common.
    • Previous ankle injury, wearing shoes with air cells in the heel and not stretching during warm up increases your risk of ankle injury.
    • Injuries to the hand, fingers, head, face and teeth are also common.
    • Knee injuries account for the most time lost in training and games.
    • Females are at higher risk of knee injury than males.
    • Overuse injuries are most common in higher level players due to the duration and intensity of play.

    Safety tips for basketball

    Good preparation is important

    • Undertake training prior to competition to ensure readiness to play.
    • Always warm up, stretch and cool down.
    • Undertake fitness programs to develop strength, balance, coordination and flexibility.
    • Gradually increase the intensity and duration of training as this will help reduce the risk of injury.

    Good technique and practices will help prevent injury

    • Know the rules and play fairly.
    • Learn and practise correct passing, jumping, landing and shooting techniques.
    • Be aware of the dangers of using basketball equipment inappropriately.
    • Know your physical capabilities and choose activities appropriate to your fitness level.
    • Coaches and officials should undertake regular certification and education to ensure their injury prevention knowledge is kept up-to-date.
    • Officials should enforce game rules.

    Wear the right protective equipment

    • Wear a mouthguard, preferably custom-fitted, at all times.
    • Wear shoes designed specifically for basketball.
    • Consider preventive ankle bracing if involved in jumping and rebounding frequently or if you have a history of ankle injury.

    Check basketball environment for hazards

    • Check and maintain the playing surface to remove hazards e.g. stones, wet surfaces.
    • Backboards and baskets should be of a high standard and securely mounted.
    • Backboards, their supports and walls should be suitably padded.
    • Baskets and boundary lines should not be too close to walls and fixtures. Refer to FIBA rules at www.basketball.net.au for further information.
    • If installing a ring at home ask a suitably qualified person such as a building professional to assess the safety of your installation.
    • Do not fix a basketball ring or backboard to brickwork.

    Modify rules and equipment for children

    • Juniors should be matched for competition on physical maturity and skill level.
    • Encourage children to take part in Aussie Hoops to develop good skills and techniques.
    • Download information on Aussie Hoops and Basketball Australia’s Helpful Guide to Junior Sport at www.basketball.net.au

    Other safety tips

    • NEVER hang or swing on a basketball ring.
    • Eat a well-balanced diet.
    • Drink water before, during and after play.
    • Do NOT play in extreme heat or wet conditions. Where possible games should be rescheduled.
    • Coaches, players and parents should be aware of heat illness symptoms.
    • Qualified first aid personnel, first aid kits, ice packs and a stretcher should be available at all times.
    • Telephone access, to contact emergency services, is essential.

    If injury occurs

    • Injured or bleeding players should be removed from the court immediately.
    • Injured players should seek prompt attention from qualified first aid personnel.
    • Ensure players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play.
    • A brace should be worn for at least three months after serious joint injuries.


    Source : Click Here !


  • History of Sport & Games

    History of Sport & Games

    Sporting events and changes are influenced by the current economic, social and political situations. In sociology we have the following approaches to the study of sport – Functionalism, Marxism, Social action and Interactionism. Each has a different view on society, the place of sport in society and the changes in sport over time.

    Medieval period (1200 – 1485)

    • People had little time or energy for recreational activities
    • Leisure time activities were confined to feast days
    • Games were local in nature, each village having its own traditional activities
    • From time to time the government would ban these traditional activities in favour of archery training

    Tudor and Stuart period (1485 – 1714)

    • Traditional folk games and activities flourished in Tudor times
    • Puritanism greatly reduced the opportunities to play and types of activity allowed
    • After the restoration in 1660, traditional activities were revived
    • Sport moved away from its link with merrymaking

    Hanoverian period (1714 – 1790)

    • Play and sport were largely ignored by the government
    • People of all classes enjoyed their leisure to the full
    • Increasing industrialisation demanded regular working patterns
    • There was some pressure for Sunday to be a day of rest
    • Large gatherings for sport often meant social disorder
    • Regular, organised, rule-governed sport on a national scale emerged

    Changing times (1790 -1830)

    • Traditional sport was under attack from all sides
    • Factory owners wanted a regular working week
    • Property owners feared the damage caused by large crowds
    • Churches criticised idleness, drunkenness and slack morality
    • Commercialisation of sport developed, especially in horse racing, cricket and prize fighting

    Victorian Sport (1830 – 1901)

    • Sport developed in the context of industrial capitalism and class inequality
    • Sport became linked to a moral code defined by the middle classes:
      • it was accepted that sport developed character and morality
      • competition had to be fair and rule-governed with similar conditions for all players
      • sport was to be played, not for reward, but for its own sake
    • Nationwide sport developed through the influence of technology, the public schools and the national governing bodies
    • For the masses, Saturday afternoon free from work was the turning point, enabling them to play and spectate
    • Amateur and professional sport became increasingly separated
    • Working class sport in school was limited largely to drill and therapeutic gymnastics

    Edwardian Sport (1901 – 1918)

    • Organised sporting involvement expanded rapidly across all classes
    • Increasingly, the different classes played their sport separately
    • Public school athleticism still dominated sport
    • Male working class influence increased, notably in football in England and rugby in Wales. However, working class women were largely excluded from sporting involvement
    • Commercialisation of sport continued with large numbers of spectators and increased numbers of professionals in major sports
    • Sport was increasingly a matter of national concern

    Between the world wars (1918 – 1940)

    • Steady growth in sports participation continued for all classes of society, although working class were least involved
    • Most sports were still class orientated
    • Football (in all its versions) continued to increase in popularity and by the 1930s, was the most popular sporting activity
    • Lack of facilities became an issue, particularly when national teams failed
    • There was little government involvement in sport, apart from physical education in schools
    • School physical education moved from therapeutic exercises to creative physical training
    • Commercialisation of sport expanded rapidly, especially the provision for spectator sport
    • Sport, as a part of a national culture, now extended to the majority of the population

    British Sport (1940 – Today)

    • An improved standard of living enabled greater participation in sport for most social groups
    • Amateur administrators only reluctantly allowed commercial forces to enter the world of sport
    • Professional sports people had a long battle to be given fair rewards
    • Television coverage increased in importance for sport and the sponsors
    • The definition of amateurism for competition was replaced by the concept of eligibility
    • Central government involvement in sport has always been fragmentary
    • There has been a long standing under funding of sport by central government
    • An advisory Sports Council was established in 1965 and the independent executive Sports Council in 1972
    • Physical education was established in the 1944 Act for its educational value
    • The movement approach conflicted with traditional games teaching
    • Physical education moved away from educational values towards physical recreation and more recently towards health-related fitness
    • Various academic qualifications in physical education stimulated scrutiny of the subject (for example, BEd, CSE, GCSE, A-Level)
    • Physical education is now established in the national curriculum as a foundation subject
    • There has been an increasing influence of market forces on schools, physical education, sports facilities and sport

    Page Reference

    The reference for this page is:

    • MACKENZIE, B. (2004) History of Sport and Games [WWW] Available from: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/history.htm [Accessed2/2/2014]


    Source : Click Here !


  • Fitness Tips for: Sport, Health, Strength & Shape

    Being fit for sport

    Whilst training for any sport it’s essential you stay strong, fit and flexible. Here are five top tips to help you move in the right direction…

    • Train in all planes of motion to improve sport-related movement. A multi-directional lunge works out your frontal and sagittal planes, for rotation (or transverse plane) use exercises such as a medicine ball woodchop.
    • Use dumbbells to promote stabilisation of joints and functionality. Try a dumbbell chest press on a stability ball instead of a chest press machine.
    • Work on your balance by training in an unstable environment. Instead of a standing bicep curl try the same exercise standing on one leg and see the difference that small adaption makes.
    • Train for strength, power and endurance. These aspects are paramount in all sports but, more importantly, changing your workout regularly will insure your performance will be kept to an optimum.
    • Prevention over cure. Keep those niggling injuries away by incorporating a flexiblilty program into every workout. Your warm up should take into account movement actions in your upcoming workout. After you workout, stretching tight muscles will keep you at the top of your game.



    Being fit for health

    In today’s stressful environment it’s never been so important to keep yourself fit and healthy. It’s a cliche but it’s true: healthy body, healthy mind.

    Here are five top tips to improving your wellbeing…

    • A healthy core is the key to a healthy body. Using stability balls, dumbbells and medicine balls will keep your core muscles and joints strong.
    • Eat a good balanced diet, including breakfast, which is the most important meal of the day. Keep yourself hydrated. It’s thought that a 2% drop in body water can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, difficulty focusing and daytime fatigue.
    • Keep your aerobic levels high by using cardio equipment. Incorporate movement-based exercises such as skipping alongside brisk walks and bike rides. This will go a long way to keeping off those extra unwanted kilos. If you drive to work, park further away than usual and walk the rest at pace. You’ll be surprised how much this wakes up the mind and you might not be so desperate for that first coffee in the morning.
    • Keep yourself as flexible as possible by incorporating a stretch program into your day. In your lunch break, spend 15 minutes stretching your tight muscles. You’ll notice the difference in both mind and body for the afternoon ahead.
    • Recovery and rest is as important as exercise. Give yourself rest days and at least 8 hours sleep a night.

    Once these tips become a habit, they’ll revolutionise your daily lifestyle leading to a new you.



    Increasing your strength

    Has your strength training hit a wall? Maybe you just don’t know where to start. Here are five top tips to help break down that wall and put you on the road to a stronger you…

    • Variation is the key. Your body will eventually adapt to all exercises so make sure you change them regularly.
    • Exercising using your own body weight is key to improving your strength. The many variations of pull ups and press ups will keep you on your toes.
    • A strong core equals a strong body. If abdominal exercises are a major part of your workout you’ll notice improvements in all other muscle groups.
    • Find yourself a training partner. Someone motivating you through your exercises and helping you with the last couple of reps will give you massive improvements in a short space of time.
    • Muscles are made of protein. To get the best out of them have a high protein meal or shake after your workout to aid the recovery process.

    If you stick to these simple rules you’ll see improvements in your strength in both the gym and your day to day life.



    Changing your shape

    Whether you want to fit into a bikini, a little black dress or a pair of old jeans, these tips will help you achieve your body shape goal.

    • Intensity over Duration. Just because you’ve been in the gym for 2 hours doesn’t mean you’ve had a workout. Interval training will burn those extra calories in a shorter space of time.
    • Weight training is the key to improving your shape. The more muscle you have the more calories you’ll burn. Just adapt the reps and rest period to suit your goal.
    • Try and use your body as a whole. Total body weight exercises will help tone up those troublesome areas and really raise your heart rate.
    • Stretching will ensure a balanced body and relieve any aches and pains following your high intensity workout.
    • Eat to lose weight. Eating little but often will keep your metabolism high. If you also stay well hydrated, those stubborn pounds will fly off.

    Sticking to these very simple rules will give you a beautiful body, inside and out.


    Source : Click Here !



  • The 10 Most Expensive Sports

    The type of commitment that makes a sports champion, is all-consuming and expensive.  That’s why private or corporate sponsorship is so important for many elite athletes.  Without it, they would be unable to achieve the level of play that they do.  From gymnasts, to tennis players, to swimmers, upper level athletes around the world undergo extensive training, testing, and conditioning.  Their training regimen alone can cost millions of dollars, and equipment, travel, food, and medical expenses can make their daily lives even more costly.  Not every sport is insanely expensive (hackey sack anyone?), but for the ones that are, you better prepared to shell out some serious cash.  Here is a quick list of the 10 Most Expensive Sports.  Participating in these could easily empty your wallet, and then some.


    10.  Equestrian Sports

    Horseback riding is a dream for many, many children.  For those at the top of the sport, which includes dressage, show jumping, and eventing – maintaining and training your horse, traveling to events, and stabling the animal appropriately can cost more than most people make in two years.  If you want to focus on equestrian sport of this type, be prepared to fork over the big bucks.

    9.  Polo

    Polo is already viewed as a sport for the elite.  The word conjures up images of Abercrombie and Fitch-style men riding around in the English countryside.  This is not an entirely inaccurate image.  Like our #10 sport, polo requires the purchase of an elite horse, and then requires maintaining, training, and traveling with that horse.  Not to mention owning several of these animals, if you are going to have a team.  The injury rate is high, as well, so be prepared to pay for medical expenses for both your equine and human players.

    8.  Formula 1

    Any sport that requires you to own a car is going to be expensive.  Making it to Formula 1 requires a lifetime commitment that usually starts with racing on the go-kart circuit when you are in elementary school.  From there, you graduate to motorcycles, and stock cars, and eventually, hopefully, you make it to Formula 1, where a single tire costs more than the average family sedan.  You also need about $190,000 just to enter a competition.  Corporate sponsors are a must in the world of Formula 1.  Be prepared for high medical costs, as well, as injuries come with the territory.

    7.  Sailing

    Sailing seems so tranquil, but at the elite end of the sailing world, it is big business.  Sailing itself is not that expensive, but purchasing a high-end boat and the best equipment can run a major price tag.  More expensive, is storing the boat and maintaining it when it is not in the water.  Since you might only sail it 2-3 months out of the year, the majority of your money will go to keeping it sea-worthy while it is on dry land.

    6.  Pentathlon

    Why incur the expense of one sport, when you can spend your money on five?  If you are going to participate in a pentathlon, you will need to have extensive training in fencing, swimming, horseback riding, running, and marksmanship.  You will also need a horse, a gun, a fencing foil and suit, and swimming and running gear.  Pentathlon competition is not for the faint of heart, or the light of wallet.

    5.  Wingsuiting

    The actual wingsuit is surprisingly inexpensive at only $2,500.  However, getting into the air, and back to the ground safely, is a whole other ball of wax.  Be prepared to pay for skydiving lessons, skydiving gear, your pilot, the plane, insurance, and the list goes on.

    4.  Bobsledding

    Bobsledding is a bit like Formula 1 without the car.  You need sponsorship, and you need a vehicle.  Elite bobsleds are wonders of science and mechanics, and they are not cheap.  Additionally, access to bobsled runs around the world is limited, so it costs money every time you train.  Finally, bobsledding is a team sport, so multiple all training and equipment costs by four.

    3.  Hot Air Balloon Racing

    Yep.  You can race hot air air balloons.  However, you’ll need an enhanced balloon designed for higher speeds, with the latest speed and navigational technology built into it.  You’ll also have to pay for a place to store it, and for exorbitant competition entry fees.  Happy ballooning!

    2.  Ski Jumping

    Even skiing for fun can be expensive, so it stands to reason that skiing at the championship level is exponentially so.  Ski jumping requires additional special equipment, access to ski jumps, a trainer, and more importantly, a very expensive insurance policy.  No one is running out to insure a person who willingly flies down a steep incline at maniacal speeds and then shoots off into the air in an attempt to fly further than the previous person.

    1.  The Whitianga Festival of Speed

    The name says it all.  This annual race, held in New Zealand, is constructed around multiple sports that are all about speed.  The event includes a helicopter race, an offshore powerboat race, jet ski racing, rally car vs. helicopter racing, and parachute swooping, among other events.  Buying and maintaining the equipment for even one of the races will set you back six figures.


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  • Football (Soccer) Fact Sheet

    Facts on football injuries

    Football is one of the most popular team-based sports in Australia and worldwide. Statistics from the Australian Sports Commission’s 2006 survey showed an estimated 697,400 Australians aged 15 years and older played outdoor football in the 12-month period prior to being surveyed. A further 310,100 people played indoor football.
    Football places many demands on the technical and physical skills of players. During the course of play, football players accelerate, decelerate, jump, cut, pivot, kick and head the ball and, as a result, injuries can and do occur.

    How many injuries?

    •  From 2002-2003, 3,270 people were admitted to hospitals across Australia for football-related injuries.
    • In Victoria, from 2002-2004, 3,376 people visited Victorian emergency departments for football-related injuries.
    • The rate of injury for football players is up to 35 injuries per 1,000 playing hours.

    The causes and types of injuries

    • More injuries occur during games than training.
    • Up to 35% of injuries are caused by foul play.
    • The most common types of injuries are bruising, sprains, strains, fractures and dislocations.
    • Injuries to the lower body, namely the ankle and
      knee, to the upper body and head are most common.
    • Common causes of injuries are player contact, falls and tackles.
    • The quality of playing areas due to drought conditions may contribute to injury.

    Factors increasing your injury risk

    • Previous injury.
    • Age.
    • Joint instability and pain.
    • Poor physical conditioning.
    • Inadequate rehabilitation.
    • Exercise overload.
    • Poor football skills.
    • Amount and quality of training.
    • Playing field conditions.
    • Not wearing protective equipment.
    • Rule violations.
    • Inferior floodlighting for training purposes.

    Safety tips for football

    Good preparation is important

    Always warm up, stretch and cool down.

    • Undertake training prior to competition to ensure readiness to play.
    • Undertake fitness programs to develop endurance, strength, balance, coordination and flexibility.
    • Gradually increase intensity and duration of training.
    • Good technique and practices will help prevent injury
    • Know the rules and play fairly.
    • Instruction on correct kicking, heading and tackling techniques must be available and reinforced.
    • Coaches should undertake regular reaccreditation and education to ensure their knowledge is kept up-to-date.
    • Officials should enforce game rules.

      Use appropriate equipment and check pitch safety

    Check and maintain the football pitch regularly to remove hazards.

    • Replace balls once their water-resistant qualities are lost.
    • Use appropriate sized balls for the age and gender of players.
    • Ensure both permanent and portable goals are securely anchored to the ground.
    • Ensure portable goals are made of lightweight material.
    • Dismantle, remove or secure portable goals to a permanent structure after use.
    • Standards Australia’s Handbook, Portable Soccer Goalposts – Manufacture, Use and Storage (HB 227:2003), aims to prevent deaths and serious injury occurring from football goalposts. To order a copy visit www.standards.org.au
    • Some moveable goal posts are now banned for sale in Victoria. Visit www.consumer.vic.gov.au for further information.
    • Wear the right protective equipment
    • Wear a mouthguard, preferably custom-fitted, at all times.
    • Wear shock absorbent shin guards at all times. Seek professional advice on the correct fitting of shin guards.
    • Consider preventive ankle taping or bracing to reduce risk of injury. Seek professional advice on footwear.

    Modify rules and equipment for children

    • Encourage children to play Small-Sided Games at their local club to develop good skills and technique.

    Children should head the ball with the proper technique and use the correct sized ball for their age and weight. Younger children should use softer balls (Nerf ball) to head the ball. Once confidence is built, a regulation ball (under-inflated at first) can be introduced.

    Other safety tips

    • Eat a well-balanced diet.
    • Drink water before, during and after play.
    • Apply broad-spectrum sunscreen when playing outdoors.
    • Do NOT play in extreme heat, wet or slippery conditions.
    • If an injury occurs
    • Injured or bleeding players should be removed from the pitch immediately.
    • Injured players should seek prompt attention from qualified first aid personnel.
    • Ensure players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play.
    • An ankle brace should be worn for at least three months after serious ankle injury.

    For further information, contact

    Smartplay – Sports Medicine Australia. Visit www.smartplay.com.au or www.sma.org.au


    This fact sheet has been reprinted with the permission of the Department of Planning and Community Development and VicHealth. Prepared by Monash University Accident Research Centre 1997.

    Updated and reprinted 2008.


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  • Sports fast facts

    Fishing is the biggest participant sports in the world.

    Football (soccer) is the most attended and watched (on TV) sport in the world.

    The first AFL/NFL championship to be called a “Super Bowl” was Superbowl III; on January 12, 1969 the New York Jets beat the Baltimore Colts 16 – 7 at the Orange Bowl. Super Bowl I was held on January 15, 1967 in Los Angeles where the Green Bay Packers beat Kansas City Chiefs by 35 to 10.

    The Dalas Cowboys and the Pittsburgh Steelers have the most Super Bowl appearances – 8 each.

    The Pittsburgh Stellers have won the most Super Bowl titles – 6 championships. The Dallas Cowboys and San Francisco 49ers each won 5 times.

    Boxing became a legal sport in 1901.

    More than 100 million people hold hunting licenses.

    Jean Genevieve Garnerin was the first female parachutists, jumping from a hot air balloon in 1799.

    In 1975, Junko Tabei from Japan became the first woman to reach the top of Everest.

    The record for the most major league baseball career innings is held by Cy Young, with 7,356 innings.

    The Major League Baseball teams use about 850,000 balls per season. Padded batting gloves have helped many of these balls to leave the stadium due to homeruns.

    The first instance of global electronic communications took place in 1871 when news of the Derby winner was telegraphed from London to Calcutta in under 5 minutes.

    In 1898, one of the first programs to be broadcasted on radio was a yacht race that took place in British waters.

    Sports command the biggest television audiences, led by the summer Olympics, World Cup Football and Formula One racing.

    Gymnasiums were introduced in 900BC and Greek athletes practiced in the nude to the accompaniment of music. They also performed naked at the Olympic Games.

    The very first Olympic race, held in 776 BC, was won by Corubus, a chef.

    The first modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece in 1896. There were 311 male but no female competitors.

    In his time, Michael Schumacher was the highest paid sportsman, ahead of Tiger Woods and Arnold Palmer. (Not including sponsorship endorsements.)

    The high jump method of jumping head first and landing on the back is called the Fosbury Flop.

    About 42,000 tennis balls are used in the plus-minus 650 matches in the Wimbledon Championship.

    The longest tennis match took place at Wimbledon 2010 when John Isner of the United States beat Nicolas Mahut of France 6-4, 3-6, 6-7 (7), 7-6 (3), 70-68 in a match that lasted 11 hours and 5 minutes, played over 3 days, June 22, 23 and 24.

    A baseball ball has exactly 108 stitches, a cricket ball has between 65 and 70 stitches.

    A soccer ball is made up of 32 leather panels, held together by 642 stitches.

    Basketball and rugby balls are made from synthetic material. Earlier, pigs’ bladders were used as rugby balls.

    The baseball home plate is 17 inches wide.

    The very first motor car land speed record was set by Ferdinand Verbiest.

    The record for the most NASCAR wins is held by Richard Petty: 200 wins (and 7 championships).

    Sébastien Loeb won the World Rally Championship a record 9 times, taking the title every year between 2004 and 2012.

    Golf the only sport played on the moon – on 6 February 1971 Alan Shepard hit a golf ball.

    The Romans played a game resembling golf, using a stick to hit a feather-stuffed ball.

    The word GOLF is not the abbreviation for “Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden.” It derives from an old German word “kolb,” meaning club.

    Bill Klem served the most seasons as major league umpire – 37 years, starting in 1905. He also officiated 18 World Series.

    The oldest continuous trophy in sports is the America’s Cup. It started in 1851, with Americans winning for a straight 132 years until Australia took the Cup in 1983.

    Volleyball was invented by William George Morgan of Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1895.

    A badminton shuttle easily travels 180 km/h (112 mph).

    Ferenc Szisz from Romania, driving a Renault, won the first Formula One Grand Prix held at Le Mans, France in 1906.

    Stéphane Peterhansel holds the record for most Dakar Rally wins; he won the motorcycle category (on a Yamaha) 6 times and has won the car category 5 times.

    Competing in three Olympics, between 1956 and 1964, Soviet gymnast Larissa Latynina won 18 medals (9 gold, 5 silver and 4 bronze). She held the record for most Olympic medlas for 48 years until surpassed by American swimmer Michael Phelps; from 2004 until 2012 he won 22 medals (18 gold, 2 silver and 2 bronze).


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